Combined Defence Services

What is CDS (I) and (II) Exam?

The “Combined Defence Services” (CDS) Examination is conducted twice a year by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) for the recruitment of candidates into the Indian Military Academy, Officers Training Academy, Indian Naval Academy and Indian Air Force Academy. The UPSC will conduct the CDS exam twice a year in the month of February and September.  Candidates who aim to serve the nation by joining the defence forces can start applying for the CDS examination. In order to apply online for the CDS examination, candidates should meet all the eligibility requirements set by the Commission. The selection of the candidates will be based on the written examination followed by an interview for intelligence and personality test. The shortlisted candidates will be placed at the respective academies based on the preference and merit. Explore more details regarding the CDS (I) & (II) examination below.

S No Name of the Academy City
1 Indian Military Academy Dehradun
2 Indian Naval Academy Ezhimala
3 Air Force Academy Hyderabad
4 Officers’ Training Academy (SSC Men) Chennai
5 Officers Training Academy (SSC Women) Chennai
CDS Exam Details

Exam Combined Defence Services (CDS) Examination
Organising body Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
Application mode Offline
Number of vacancies 400 (approximately)
Application fee INR 200
Frequency Twice a year
Exam mode Offline
Selection process Written test and SSB interview
Admit card mode Online
Official website
Phone number (facilitation counter) 011-23098543/ 23385271/ 23381125/ 23098591

CDS Notification 2022

The UPSC will release the CDS notification twice a year in the months of December and May. The recruitment notification of CDS will be released for around 400 vacancies each time. Aspirants should note that the number of vacancies in the notification is tentative and may be changed at any stage by Services.

CDS Exam Dates 2022

CDS (I) 2022 Dates

CDS (I) notification 2022 December 22, 2022
CDS (I) 2022 last date to apply January 11, 2022)
CDS (I) 2022 exam date April 10, 2022
CDS (I) 2022 result date May 2022
CDS (II) 2022 Dates

CDS (II) notification 2022 May 18, 2022
CDS (II) 2022 last date to apply  June 14, 2022
CDS (II) 2022 exam date September 04, 2022
CDS (II) 2022 result date October 2022

CDS (I) 2022

The UPSC will release the official notification of CDS (I) 2022 examination on April 10, 2022 and CDS (II) 2022 the online applications can be filled up from May 18 to June 14, 2022, till 6:00 pm. Aspirants are required to apply online using the official link The candidates applying for the examination must fulfil all the eligibility criteria for admission to the examination. The CDS (I) 2022 examination will be held on April 10, 2022, for admissions to the below-mentioned courses in the notification.

CDS (I) 2022 Vacancies
Academy Course Total Vacancies
Indian Military Academy Dehradun 152nd (DE) course commencing in January 2023 100
Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala Course commencing in January 2023 Executive (General Service)/ Hydro 22
Air Force Academy, Hyderabad (Pre-Flying) Training Course commencing in January 2023 32
Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai 117th SSC (Men) Course (NT) commencing in April 2023 170
Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai 31st SSC Women (Non-Technical) Course commencing in April 2023 17
Total 341

CDS (II) 2022

The UPSC will release the CDS (II) 2022 exam recruitment notification on May 18, 2022. The name of the notification is ”Combined Defence Service Examination (II), 2022 (Including SSC Women (Non-Technical Course).” The online applications will be accepted until June  14, 2022. A Combined Defence Services Exam will be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission on September 04   2022.

CDS (II) 2022 Vacancies
Academy Course Reserved for NCC – Vacancies Total Vacancies
Indian Military Academy Dehradun 153nd (DE) course commencing in January 2023 13 100
Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala Course commencing in January 2023 Executive (General Service)/ Hydro 03 22
Air Force Academy, Hyderabad (Pre-Flying) Training Course commencing in January 2023 03 32
Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai 11th SSC (Men) Course (NT)

(UPSC) Course commencing in October 2023

Nil 169
Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai 28th SSC Women (Non-Technical) (UPSC) Course commencing in October 2023 Nil 16
Total 339

CDS Registration 2022

Interested candidates are advised to check whether they meet all the eligibility requirements set by the Commission prior to CDS registration. For CDS exam registration, candidates need to visit the official website of UPSC (

Candidates should have details of one photo identity card such as the Aadhaar Card/ Voter Card/ PAN Card/ Passport/ Driving Licence/ any other ID card issued by the State/Central Government. The details in the ID card are required to filling up the CDS online application form.

Aspirants are also advised to keep the scanned copy of the photo ID ready for uploading. The same photo ID card is required until the final selection. Explore the step by step CDS registration form 2022 here

CDS Eligibility 2022: Age Limit for CDS, Qualification,& Physical Standard

Both men and women can apply for 341 CDS vacancies. Following are some important points that must be noted by the aspirants before they apply for CDS Exam.

  • Candidates must be settled in India permanently
  • Candidates must be a graduate or at least in their final year/semester.
  • The minimum age limit is 19 years
  • Women candidates are eligible to apply only for OTA.
  • Divorced women must be issueless
  • Tech graduates can apply for IMA, INA AFA also.
  • Candidates must meet the physical standards

CDS Eligibility Criteria: Nationality

All the important details including the eligibility criteria are mentioned by the authorities in the CDS 2 2022 Notification. The Nationality requirements of CDS are listed below.

  • A Citizen of India,
  • A subject of Bhutan or Nepal
  • A Tibetan refugee who came over to India before January 1962 intending to permanently settle in India,
  • A person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, and East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, and Ethiopia or Vietnam intending to permanently settle in India.

Note: Candidates under points 2, 3, 4, and 5 must have a certificate or proof issued by the Indian Government in favor of their statement.

Candidates who are Gorkha subjects of Nepal are not required to show any kind of certificate of CDS eligibility.

A candidate in whose case a certificate of CDS eligibility 2022 is necessary may be admitted to the examination provisionally subject to the necessary certificate being given to him/her by the Govt. before the declaration of result by UPSC.

CDS Eligibility Criteria: Age Limit and Marital Status

According to CDS guidelines, female candidates can apply only for OTA while male candidates can apply for any post of CDS Examination, as long as they fulfill other eligibility criteria. The details about the age limit and required marital status are given below.

Academy CDS Age Limit Marital Status
Indian Military Academy (IMA) 19 – 24 Years Unmarried
Indian Naval Academy (INA) 19 – 22 Years Unmarried
Air Force Academy 19 – 23 Years <25 years unmarried or >25 years both married and unmarried.
Officers’ Training Academy (SSC Women Non-Technical Course) 19 – 25 Years Unmarried Women, issueless widows who have not remarried, and issueless divorcees (in possession of divorce documents) who have not remarried are eligible.
Officers’ Training Academy (SSC Course for Men) 19 – 25 Years Unmarried

Points to Remember

  • Male divorcee/ widower candidates will not be treated as unmarried. So, they will not be considered eligible for CDS Exam.
  • The date of birth that is entered in the Matriculation/Secondary School Examination Certificate or a certificate recognized by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or any equivalent examination certificate will be accepted by UPSC.
  • No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, service records, etc. will be accepted.
  • No change in date of birth will be allowed subsequently on any ground.
  • During the verification process or at any stage of the exam, if it is found that the date of birth which the candidate has entered in the application form does not match with a valid certificate, disciplinary action will be taken against them by the Commission under the rules.

CDS Eligibility Criteria: Educational Qualification

As mentioned above, candidates appearing for the CDS 2022 exam must have completed their Graduation or at least be appearing for the final exam of the degree. It is important to remember that the CDS admit cards are issued only for candidates who fulfill all the eligibility criteria.

Academies CDS Educational Qualification
Indian Military Academy (IMA) and Officers’ Training Academy (OTA) Graduation from a recognized university
Indian Naval Academy (INA) An engineering degree from a recognized university/institute
Air Force Academy (AFA) Bachelor of Engineering or Graduation (with Physics and Mathematics at Class 12)

Candidates who are studying in the final year/semester degree course are required to submit the authentic certificate of passing the degree issued by the University/College at the time of the SSB interview. The certificate of the Degree should contain the date of issue and the date of issue must be before the specified date declared by UPSC. Otherwise, their candidature will be canceled.


Candidates who are debarred by the Ministry of Defence from holding any type of commission in the Defence Services shall not be eligible for admission to the examination

CDS Eligibility Criteria: Physical Standards for Male & Female

Candidates must be physically and mentally fit as per the guidelines of UPCS. A good number of qualified candidates get disqualified on medical grounds. Therefore candidates are strongly advised to get themselves medically tested before applying for CDS Exam. The most commonly found reasons for disqualification are listed below.

  • Wax (ears)
  • Deviated Nasal Septum
  • Hydrocele/Varicocele/Phimosis
  • Overweight/Underweight
  • Piles
  • Gynaecomastia

Permanent body tattoos are strictly prohibited anywhere on their body parts except the inner face of the forearm i.e. inside of elbow to the wrist and on the reverse side of palm/back (dorsal) side of the hand. In certain cases, candidates with tattoos of specific tribes on their faces or bodies as per their existing customs and traditions will be permitted.

CDS Heights and Weight Standards

  • The minimum acceptable height for male candidates is 157.5 cms. (157 cms for Navy and 162.5 cms for Air Force) and that for female candidates is 152 cms.
  • For Gorkhas and individuals belonging to hills of the North-Eastern region of India, Garhwali and Kumaon, the minimum acceptable height will be 5 cms less. In the case of candidates from Lakshadweep, the minimum acceptable height can be reduced by 2 cms.
  • Body Mass Index should be below 25.
  • The waist Hip ratio should be below 0.9 for males and 0.8 for females.
  • Waist Circumference should be less than 90 cm for males and 80 cm for females.
  • All biochemical metabolic parameters should be within normal limits.

Age-wise Height and Weight- Army and Navy (Male Candidates)

The below-mentioned standards are for male candidates interested in joining Army or Navy.

Height in Centimetres (Without Shoes) Weight (Kgs)
18 years 20 years 22 years 24 years
152 44* 46 47 48
155 46 48** 49 50
157 47 49 50 51
160 48 50 51 52
162 50 52 51 54
165 52 53 55 56
168 53 55 57 58
170 55 57 58 59
173 57 59 60 61
175 59 61 62 62
178 61 62 63 64
180 63 64 65 66
183 65 67 67 68
185 67 69 70 71
188 70 71 72 74
190 72 73 74 76
193 74 76 77 78
195 77 78 79 81

*45 for Navy ** 47 for Navy 

  • A ± 10% (for Navy) departure from the average weight given in the table above is to be considered within normal limits. However, in individuals with heavy bones and broadly built as well as individuals with thin built but otherwise healthy, this may be relaxed to some extent on merit.

Age-wise Heights and Weights- Air Force (Male Candidates)

The acceptable weight for Air Force candidates will be ± 10% of the average. (For FAT % (<20) of Normal Individuals). 

Height (mm)  Weight (Kgs)
15- 17 years 18-22 years 23-27 years 28-32 years 33-37 years 38-42 years 43-47 years >48 years
1520 46 47 50 54 54 54 55 54
1530 47 47 51 55 55 54 56 54
1540 47 48 51 56 55 55 57 55
1550 48 49 52 56 56 56 57 56
1560 48 49 53 57 57 56 58 56
1570 49 50 54 58 58 57 58 57
1580 49 50 54 58 58 58 59 58
1590 50 51 55 59 59 59 60 58
1600 51 52 56 59 60 59 60 59
1610 51 52 56 60 60 60 61 60
1620 52 53 57 61 61 61 62 60
1630 52 54 58 61 62 61 62 61
1640 53 54 59 62 63 62 63 62
1650 53 55 59 63 63 63 64 62
1660 54 56 60 63 64 64 64 63
1670 54 56 61 64 65 64 65 64
1680 55 57 61 65 65 65 65 65
1690 55 57 62 65 66 66 66 65
1700 56 58 63 66 67 67 67 66
1710 56 59 64 66 68 67 67 67
1720 57 59 64 67 68 66 68 67
1730 58 60 65 68 69 69 69 68
1740 58 61 66 68 70 69 69 69
1750 59 61 66 69 71 70 70 69
1760 59 62 67 70 71 71 71 70
1770 60 62 68 70 72 72 71 71
1780 60 63 69 71 73 72 72 71
1790 61 64 69 72 73 73 73 72
1800 61 64 70 72 74 74 73 73
1810 62 65 71 73 75 75 74 73
1820 62 66 72 74 76 75 74 74
1830 63 66 72 74 76 76 75 75
1840 64 67 73 75 77 77 76 75
1850 64 68 74 75 78 77 76 76
1860 65 68 74 76 78 78 77 77
1870 65 69 75 77 79 79 78 77
1880 66 69 76 77 80 80 78 78
1890 66 70 77 78 81 80 79 79
1900 67 71 77 79 81 81 80 79
1910 67 71 78 79 82 82 80 80
1920 68 72 79 80 83 82 81 81
1930 68 73 79 81 83 83 81 82

CDS Height and Weight Standards- Female Candidates

The age-specific height and weight requirements for the female candidates to work in OTA are listed below.

Height in Centimetres (Without shoes) Weights (Kgs)
18 years 20 years 30 years
148 39 41 43
150 40 42 43.5
153 42 43.5 45
155 43 44 46
158 45 46 48
160 46 47 49
163 47 48 51
165 49 51 53
168 50 52 54

Other Standard

CDS Eligibility Criteria: Other Physical Standards

Other than heights and weight ratio, there are several physical criteria that candidates should meet to prove their physical fitness:

Visual Standards

UPSC has specified three types of visual standards for all academies:

For IMA and OTA

  • Uncorrected vision(max allowed) – 6/60 &6/60
  • BCVA – Rt 6/6 & Lt 6/6
  • Myopia – < -3.50 D Sph ( including max astigmatism ≤ +/- 2.0 D Cyl)
  • Hypermetropia – <+3.50 dSph ( including max astigmatism ≤ +/- 2.0 D Cyl)
  • Lasik/equivalent surgery – Permitted
  • Colour perception: CP II
Male Female
Vision (corrected) better eye 6/6 and worse eye 6/12 Vision(corrected) better eye 6/6, worse eye 6/12
Myopia of not more than minus 3.5 D Myopia of not more than minus 5.5 D
Manifest hypermetropia should be less than plus 3.5 D including Astigmatism Manifest hypermetropia should be less than plus 3.5 D including Astigmatism.

For Naval Candidates

  • Uncorrected without glasses: 6/12, 6/12
  • Corrected with glasses: 6/6, 6/6
  • Limits of Myopia: -1.5D
  • Limits of Hypermetropia : +1.5D
  • Binocular Vision: III
  • Limits of Colour Perception: I

For Air Force 

Candidates who habitually wear spectacles are not eligible for Air Force. Minimum distant vision 6/6 in one eye and 6/9 in other correctable to 6/6 only.

Hypermetropia Colour Vision CP-1 

  • Hypermetropia: +2.0 d Sph
  • Manifest Myopia: Nil
  • Retinoscopic Myopia- 0.5 in any meridian
  • Astigmatism : +0.75 D Cyl (with + 2.0 D- Max)

Maddox Rod Test

  • at 6 meters:
  1. Exo-6 prism D
  2. Eso-6 prism D
  3. Hyper-1 prism D
  4. Hypo-1prism D
  • at 33 cms:
  1. Exo-16 prism D
  2. Eso-6 prism D
  3. Hyper-1 prism D
  4. Hypo-1 prism D

* Lasik/equivalent surgery

Candidates who have undergone any kerato-refractive procedures are required to show certificate/ operative notes from the medical center specified the date, type of surgery, and procedure. The candidates also need to fulfill following criteria to be considered fit.

  • More than 20 yrs of age at the time of surgery.
  • Minimum 12 months post LASIK
  • Central corneal thickness equal to or more than 450 µ
  • The axial length by IOL Master equal to or less than 26 mm
  • Residual refraction of less than or equal to +/- 1.0 D incl cylinder, (provided acceptable in the category applied for).
  • A normal healthy retina.
  • Corneal topography and ectasia markers can also be included as additional criteria.

Hearing Standards for Air Force

Conditions related to ear and hearing standards are:

  • Speech test:Free Field hearing loss is a cause for rejection. Any reduction of less than 600 cm in CV/FW is not acceptable.
  • Audiometric Test:Audiometric loss should not be greater than 20 dB, in frequencies between 250 and 8000 Hz. On the recommendation of an ENT Specialist, an isolated unilateral hearing loss up to 30 DB may be condoned provided ENT examination is otherwise normal.
  • A radical/modified radical mastoidectomy entails rejection even if completely epithelialized and good hearing is preserved. Cases of cortical mastoidectomy in the past with the tympanic membrane intact, normal hearing, and presenting no evidence of disease may be accepted.
  • Cases of chronic otitis externa accompanied by exostoses or unduly narrow meat will be rejected. Exaggerated tortuosity of the canal, obliterating the anterior view of the tympanic membrane will be a cause for rejection.

Tympanoplasty Type I is acceptable twelve weeks after surgery, provided the ear clearance test in the altitude chamber is normal. The following middle ear conditions will entail rejection:-

  1. Attic, central or marginal perforation.
  2. Tympanic membrane scar with marked retraction.
  3. Tympanoplasty Type II onward but not type I.
  4. Calcareous plaques (tympanosclerosis) if occupying more than 1/3 of pars tensa.
  5. Middle ear infection.
  6. Granulation or polyp in the external auditory canal.
  7. Stapedectomy operation.
  8. Otosclerosis
  9. Meniere’s disease
  10. Vestibular dysfunction including nystagmus of vestibular origin.
  11. Bell’s palsy following an ear infection.

Spinal Conditions for Air Force 

Past medical history of diseases or injury of the spine or sacroiliac joints, either with or without objective signs which have prevented the candidate from successfully following a physically active life, is a cause for rejection for commissioning in IAF. History of spinal fracture/prolapsed intervertebral disc and surgical treatment for these conditions will entail rejection. The following conditions detected during the medical exam will disqualify a candidate for Air Force service.

  • The granulomatous disease of the spine
  1. Arthritis/Spondylosis:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis and allied disorders
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Osteoarthrosis, spondylosis, and degenerative joint diseases
  • Non-articular rheumatism (e.g. lesions of the rotator cuff, tennis elbow, recurrent lumbago, etc.)
  • Miscellaneous disorders including SLE, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, vasculitis.
  • Spondylolisthesis/ spondylolysis/ spondylosis
  1. Compression fracture of vertebrae
  2. Scheuermann’s disease (Adolescent Kyphosis)
  3. Loss of cervical lordosis when associated with clinically restricted movements of the cervical spine.
  4. Unilateral/bilateral cervical ribs with a demonstrable neurological or circulatory deficit.

Physical Conditioning

Prospective candidates are advised to keep themselves in good physical condition by following the below-mentioned routine.

  • Running: 2 to 4 km in 15 minutes
  • Pushups & Sit-ups: Minimum 20 each
  • Chin-ups: Min. 8
  • Rope Climbing: 3 to 4 meters
  • Skipping

Dental Conditions

Conditions related to Dental standards and problems for CDS candidates are:

  • Incipient pathological conditions of the jaws, which are known to be progressive or recurrent.
  • Significant jaw discrepancies between the upper and lower jaw may hamper efficient mastication and/or speech will be a cause for rejection.
  • Symptomatic Temporo-Mandibular Joint has clicking and tenderness is subject to rejection.
  • A mouth opening of less than 30 mm measured at the incisal edges, Dislocation of the TMJ on wide opening.
  • All potentially cancerous conditions.
  • Clinical diagnosis for submucous fibrosis with or without the restriction of mouth opening.
  • Poor oral health status in the form of gross visible calculus, periodontal pockets, and/or bleeding from gums.
  • Loose teeth: More than two mobile teeth will render the candidate unfit.
  • Cosmetic or post-traumatic maxillofacial surgery/trauma will be UNFIT for at least 24 weeks from the date of surgery/injury whichever is later.
  • If malocclusion of teeth is hampering efficient mastications maintenance of oral hygiene or general nutrition or performance of duties efficiently.

Chest Conditions

The candidates with any of the following conditions will be rejected on medical grounds even if they fulfill all the other eligibility criteria.

Tuberculosis, or evidence of tuberculosis, lesions of lungs, heart, musculoskeletal lesions of the chest wall

Abdomen and Genitor-urinary System:

Problems like Hernia, undescended testis, varicocele, organomegaly, solitary kidney, horseshoe kidney & cysts in the kidney/liver, Gall bladder stones, renal and ureteric stones, lesions/deformities of urogenital organs, piles, sinuses, and lymphadenitis/pathy

Nervous System 

  • Tremors, and speech impediments, as well as imbalance, are not allowed.
  • Skin Problems: Vitiligo, haemangiomas, warts, corns, dermatitis, skin infections
  • Growths and hyperhidrosis are not allowed.

Other Important Facts

The following conditions detected on X-ray examination will be disqualifying for entry to Army and Navy.

  1. The granulomatous disease of the spine.
  2. Arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis & allied disorders and ankylosing spondylitis
  3. Scoliosis more than 100 degrees as measured by Cobb’s method.
  4. More than mild Kyphosis/Lordosis.
  5. Spondylolisthesis/Spondylosis/Spondylolysis.
  6. Herniated nucleus pulposus.
  7. Compression fracture of Vertebra.
  8. Sacralisation Disease.
  9. Cervical ribs with demonstrable neurological or Circulatory deficit.
  10. Presence of Schmorl’s node at more than one level.
  11. Atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial anomalies.
  12. Incomplete Sacralisation Unilateral or Bilateral.
  13. Spina Bifida is other than SV 1 and LV 5.
  14. Any other abnormality, if so considered by specialist

General Guidelines of Medical Standards

To be a ‘Medically fit’ person, candidates have to be in good physical and mental health. They also need to be free from any kind of disease or syndrome. In the following paragraphs, the detailed guidelines of Medical standards for IMA, INA, AFA, and OTA:

  1. The candidate also should be free of any medical conditions which lead them to visit medical facilities or use any aid/drugs.
  2. There should be no proof of a weak constitution, imperfect development of any system, any congenital deformities/ diseases/syndrome, or malformation.
  3. No swelling/s including tumors/cyst/swollen lymph node/s anywhere on the body will be allowed.
  4. No sinus/es or fistula/es anywhere on the body will be considered as good health.
  5. No hyper or hypopigmentation or any other disease/syndrome/disability of the skin.
  6. No hernia anywhere on the body.
  7. No scars which can impair the functioning and cause significant disfigurement.
  8. No arterio-venous malformation anywhere in/on the body.
  9. No malformation of the head and face including asymmetry, deformity from fracture or depression of the bones of the skull; or scars indicating old operative interference and malformation like sinuses and fistulae, etc.
  10. No impairment of vision including color perception and field of vision.
  11. No hearing impairment, deformities/disabilities in-ears vestibule-cochlear system
  12. No impediment of speech due to any etiology.
  13. No disease/disability/ congenital anomaly/syndrome of the bones or cartilages of the nose, or palate, nasal polyps, or disease of the nasopharynx, uvula, and accessory sinuses. There should be no nasal deformity and no features of chronic tonsillitis.
  14. No disease /syndrome/disability of the throat, palate tonsils or gums, or any disease or injury affecting the normal function of either mandibular joint.
  15. No disease /syndrome/disability of the heart and blood vessels including congenital, genetic, organic incl hypertension, and conduction disorders.
  16. No evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis or previous history of this disease or any other disease /syndrome/disability chronic disease of the lungs and chest including allergies /immunological conditions, connective tissue disorders, musculoskeletal deformities of chest.
  17. No disease of the digestive system including any abnormality of the liver, pancreas including endocrine, congenital, hereditary, or genetic diseases /syndromes and disabilities.
  18. No diseases/syndrome/disability of any endocrine system, reticuloendothelial system.
  19. No diseases/syndrome/disability of genito-urinary system including malformations, atrophy/hypertrophy of any organ or gland.
  20. No active, latent or congenital venereal disease.
  21. No history or evidence of mental disease, epilepsy, incontinence of urine, or enuresis.
  22. No disease/deformity/syndrome of the musculoskeletal system and joints incl skull, spine, and limbs.
  23. There is no congenital or hereditary disease/ syndrome/disability.

The following ocular diseases will make a candidate unfit :

  • Corneal Opacity.
  • Lenticular opacity.
  • Entropion/Ectropion.
  • Night blindness.
  • Retinal lesions.
  • Naso-Lacrimal occlusion.

It is advisable to all the candidates that they get themselves examined by a professional physician as per CDS physical and medical standards before applying for any of the posts under CDS 2022 Examination.

CDS Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2022 are discussed in the article.

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts the “Combined Defence Services” (CDS) Examination twice a year for recruiting candidates for the Indian Military Academy, Officers Training Academy, Indian Naval Academy and Indian Air Force Academy. The Notification is usually released in the months of October/ November and June/ July, and the examination is generally conducted in February and November respectively. Only unmarried graduates are eligible to sit for the exam. Successful candidates are admitted into the respective Academies after an interview conducted by the Services Selection Board ( SSB ). To clear the examination, first, you need is the complete information of the pattern, syllabus and previous year exam analysis so that it would become easy for you to analyse the examination and to prepare a strategy further.

CDS Syllabus 2022- Overview

Mode of exam Offline
Number of sections Indian Military Academy (IMA), Indian Naval Academy (INA) and Air Force Academy (AFA) – Three Officers’ Training Academy (OTA) – Two
Total marks of the test IMA, INA and AFA – 300 OTA – 200
Nature of questions Objective type
CDS 1 2022 Exam Date 10th April 2022
Language of question paper Hindi and English
Duration of the test 2 hours for each section of test

CDS Exam Pattern for IMA, INA, AFA

Subject Duration Maximum marks
English 2 hours 100
General Knowledge 2 hours 100
Elementary Mathematics 2 hours 100

CDS Exam Pattern for OTA

Subject Duration Maximum marks
English 2 hours 100
General Knowledge 2 hours 100

CDS Intelligence & Personality Test

Candidates who qualify for the Written Test will be called for the SSB Interview. The SSB Interview consists of Stage I and Stage II. Aspirants who clear Stage I will go ahead for Stage II.

Stage I: This stage has tests based on Picture Perception (PP), Officer Intelligence Rating (OIR), and Description Test (DT). Aspirants are shortlisted based on their combined performance in OIR Test, PP and DT.

Stage II: This stage comprises an Interview, a Psychology Tests, Group Testing Officer Tasks, and the Conference. This stage takes over 4 days to get over.

CDS Syllabus 2022 Marking Scheme

Negative marking is applicable for every wrong marked answer. In CDS 2022 paper, each question carries 4 options and out of which only 1 option is correct. For each incorrect answer, 1/3 of the marks will be deducted. More than one option marked is treated as incorrect. However, if a question is left unanswered there will be no negative marking.

CDS Syllabus 2022- Subject-Wise Syllabus

Candidates can check the UPSC CDS Syllabus in the table given below.

Sections Topics
  • Spotting Errors Questions
  • Sentence Arrangement Questions
  • Synonyms & Antonyms
  • Selecting Words
  • Ordering of Sentence
  • Comprehension Questions
  • Ordering of words in a sentence
  • Fill in the blanks questions
  • Idioms and Phrases
General Awareness (GK)
  • Economics
  • Physics
  • Current Affairs
  • Politics
  • Chemistry
  • Sociology
  • History
  • Defence related Award
  • Geography
  • Environment
  • Sport
  • Biology
  • Cultural
  • Book
  • Statement
  • true/false
Elementary Mathematics Algebra
  • Basic Operations
  • simple factors
  • Remainder Theorem
  • H.C.F.
  • L.C.M.
  • Theory of polynomials
  • solutions of quadratic equations
  • relation between its roots and coefficients (Only real roots to be considered)
  • Simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns—analytical and graphical solutions
  • Simultaneous linear inequations in two variables and their solutions
  • Practical problems leading to two simultaneous linear equations or inequations in two variables or quadratic equations in one variable & their solutions
  • Set language and set notation
  • Rational expressions and conditional identities
  • Laws of indices
  • Number System: Natural numbers, Integers, Rational and Real numbers.
  • Fundamental operations: addition, substraction, multiplication, division, Square roots, Decimal fractions
  • Unitary method
  • time and distance
  • time and work
  • percentages
  • applications to simple and compound interest
  • profit and loss
  • ratio and proportion
  • variation
  • Elementary Number Theory: Division algorithm
  • Prime and composite numbers
  • Tests of divisibility by 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 and 11
  • Multiples and factors. Factorisation Theorem
  • H.C.F. and L.C.M.
  • Euclidean algorithm
  • Logarithms to base 10
  • laws of logarithms
  • use of logarithmic tables
  • Sine ×, cosine ×, Tangent × when 0° < × < 90°
  • Values of sin ×, cos × and tan ×, for ×= 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°
  • Simple trigonometric identities
  • Use of trigonometric tables
  • Simple cases of heights and distances
  • Lines and angles
  • Plane and plane figures
  • Theorems on Properties of angles at a point
  • Parallel lines
  • Sides and angles of a triangle
  • Congruency of triangles
  • Similar triangles
  • Concurrence of medians and altitudes
  • Properties of angles
  • sides and diagonals of a Parallelogram
  • rectangle and square
  • Circles and its properties including tangents and normals
  • Loci
  • Areas of squares
  • rectangles
  • parallelograms
  • triangle and circle
  • Areas of figures which can be split up into these figures (Field Book)
  • Surface area and volume of cuboids
  • lateral surface and volume of right circular cones and cylinders
  • surface area and volume of spheres
  • Collection and tabulation of statistical data
  •  Graphical representation frequency polygons
  •  histograms
  •  bar charts
  •  pie charts etc
  •  Measures of central tendency

CDS Important Instructions

  • Write only in Black ballpoint pen, your Centre and subject followed by the CDS 2022 test booklet series (in bracket), subject code and the exam roll number at the appropriate space provided on the answer sheet at the top.
  • Encode your CDS 2022 booklet series (A, B, C, or D as the case may be), subject code and roll number in the circles provided for the purpose in the answer sheet.
  • In case the CDS booklet series is not printed on the test booklet or answer sheet is un-numbered then candidates should report immediately to the invigilator and get the test booklet/answer sheet replaced.
  • Candidates should note that any omission/mistakes/discrepancy in encoding/filling of details in the CDS 2022 OMR answer sheet, especially with regard to the Roll Number and Test Booklet Series Code, will render the answer sheet liable for rejection.
  • Immediately after the commencement of the CDS 2022 please check that the test booklet supplied to you does not have any unprinted or torn or missing pages or items etc., if so, get it replaced by a complete test booklet of the same series and subject.
  • Do not write your name or anything other than the specific items of information asked for, on the CDS answer sheet/test booklet/sheet for rough work.
  • Do not fold or damage or put any extraneous marking over the CDS Answer Sheet. Do not write anything on the reverse of the answer sheet.

CDS Eligibility Criteria 2022: FAQs

Ques. Can the 12th pass apply for the CDS 2022 exam?

Ans.You are not eligible to join CDS after the 12th as the minimum academic qualification for CDS is Graduation.

Ques. Can women apply for the CDS exam? 

Ans.Yes, women can apply for CDS Exam, but they are eligible to join OTA only. They are then allotted SSC(Short Service Commission) in the non-technical cadre.

Ques. What is the age limit of the CDS exam?

Ans.The minimum age required is 19 years. The maximum age allowed is 24 for IMA and INA, 23 for AFA, and 25 for OTA.

Ques. How many attempts are there for the CDS exam?

Ans.Though the age limit and marital conditions have been specified by the conducting body, there is no limit for the number of attempts. A candidate can apply for this exam till the age limit exceeds.

Ques. I am a 22-year-old male and I am married. Can I apply for the Indian Naval Academy?

Ans.No, you cannot apply for the Indian Naval Academy. Though age-wise you are eligible but to appear for INA you have to be unmarried.

Ques. I have done graduation in Computer Science. Am I eligible to appear for the Indian Naval Academy?

Ans.No, you are not eligible to appear for INA. The candidate must hold a degree in engineering to be eligible for the INA exam.

Ques. I am 20 years female candidate. I have remarried after my divorce. Can I apply for OTA?

Ans.You are not eligible for OTA. To be eligible for OTA, the divorcee should not be remarried after the divorce.

Ques. What if a candidate wears spectacles regularly. Will they be considered for CDS 2022?

Ans.Candidates who wear spectacles are eligible for other CDS categories except for Air Force. For Air Force, you must not be wearing spectacles habitually.

Ques. What physical activities can be done, to clear the CDS physical round?

Ans.To be physically fit for CDS 2022, follow the below-mentioned routine:

  • Run 2 to 4 km in 15 minutes
  • Do Pushups & Sit-ups, minimum of 20 each
  • Do Chin-ups, minimum 8
  • Climb rope (3 to 4 meters)
  • What conditions will be disqualified in the X-Ray exam of the Army and Navy?
  • List of conditions that will be disqualified is Granulomatous,  Arthritis, Scoliosis, More than mild Kyphosis/Lordosis, Spondylolisthesis,  Herniated nucleus purposes, Compression fracture of Vertebra, Sacralisation Disease, Cervical ribs with demonstrable neurological or Circulatory deficit, Presence of Schmorl’s node at more than one level, atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial anomalies, Incomplete Sacralisation Unilateral or Bilateral, Spinabifida other than SV 1 and LV 5, Any other abnormality, if so considered by the specialist.
  • Are there 60% criteria for CDS?
  • There are no marks criteria for applying for the CDS exam. The only educational qualification required is a graduation degree from any discipline. You can check the educational CDS eligibility criteria in detail above.
  • What are the physical requirements for CDS?
  • There are very specific BMI, height, weight, waist-hip proportion, eyesight, hearing standards, and a list of undesirable medical conditions for both female and male candidates in CDS. Based on age, the relevant height and weight requirements are determined.

A few criteria include less than 20% body fat percentage, BMI below 25, waist circumference should be below 90cm for male candidates and 80 cm for females, and so on. You can check the entire physical requirement for CDS here.

Ques. What is the age required for CDS OTA for females?

Ans.The female candidates should be between 19-25 years for OTA. For more details related to age limit and relaxation for CDS, you can check details above

Ques. Can a final-year student apply for CDS?

Ans.Yes, a final-year student can also apply for CDS provided you are graduating before the exam application procedure begins. Also, proof of qualifying for the degree has to be submitted to be considered for the position.

Ques. Can I take the CDS exam after class 12?

Ans.CDS is a graduation level exam and hence cannot be applied for after class 12.

Ques. What is the medical fitness required for CDS?

Ans.Common medical issues that a candidate must get tested for before appearing for the SSB interview include ear wax, deviated nasal septum, gynecomastia, phimosis, overweight/underweight, etc. there are many other medical fitness related issues too which you should get the test for and you can find the details above

Ques. What is the age limit of girls for the CDS exam?

Ans.For women, the age limit is between 19-25 years for the CDS Exam.

Ques. Is it necessary to qualify for CDS 1 before CDS 2?

Ans.No, CDS 1 and CDS 2 are the same exam which is conducted every year. CDS exam is conducted twice every year and the candidate has to qualify it once to be considered for recruitment.

Ques. Can a graduate soldier apply for CDS?

Ans.Yes, if you meet all the CDS eligibility criteria, you can apply for the exam and will be treated like any other candidate.